Foreign materials encompass laws applying solely within the boundaries of sovereign states, excluding the United States (the Bluebook being US Centric). While the rest of this guide is broken up by type of material cited, in this section you will find descriptions of the myriad rules related to citing material from counties other than the United States, including jurisdiction, transliteration, and abbreviations.
Please note that these are select examples, and the Bluebook should be consulted to ensure a citation is correct.
Common Law Case examples (Rule 20.3.1):
R. v. Lockwood (1782) 99 Eng. Rep. 379 (KB).
Chase v. Campbell,  S.C.R. 425 (Can.)
Bachlan Singh v. State of Punjab, (1980) 2 SCC 684, 751 (per Bhagwati, I., dissenting) (India).
Civil Law and Other Non-Common Law Case example (Rule 20.3.2):
Bundesgerichtshof [BHG] [Federal Court of Justice] Apr. 7, 2003,154 Entscheidungen des Bundesgerichtshofes in Zivilsachen [BGHZ] 53 (126) (Ger.).
China Nat’l Technical Imp./Exp. Corp. v. Indus. Res. Co., China L. & Prac., Aug. 22, 1988, at 26 (Shanghai Interm. People’s Ct. May 11, 1988).
Constitution examples (Rule 20.4):
Bundesverfassung [BV] [Constitution] Apr. 18, 1999, SR 101, art. 29 (Switz.).
Xianfa art. 35, § 1 (1982) (China).
Statutes in Common Law Systems, examples (Rule 20.5.1):
Extradition Law, 5714-1954, 8 LSI 144, (1953-1954) (Isr.).
Emergency Powers Act, 1976 (Act No. 33/1976) (Ir.).
The Consumer Protection Act, 2019, §6(2)(a) (India).
Statutes in Civil Law and Other Non-Common Law Jurisdictions examples (Rule 20.5.2):
Code Civil [C. civ] [Civil Code] art. 1112 (Fr.).
Minpō [Minpō] [Civ. C] art. 398-20, para. 1, no. 1 (Japan).
Broadly, according to Rule 20.2.1:
Titles and Names of Documents in Languages Other than English, Rule 20.2.2:
Abbreviations in Languages Other than English, Rule 20.2.3:
Languages That Do Not Use the Roman Alphabet, Rule 20.2.4:
In general, short form citations for foreign materials are consistent with non-foreign materials. Note, however:
Jurisdiction is included "at the end of the citation but before any parallel citations," and should utilize abbreviations in Table 10. "Jurisdiction should be applied as necessary to all foreign materials, be they cases, statues, constitutions, or any other format, unless jurisdiction is clear from the context" in which case it may be omitted.
Cite to a translation if an original source is "not widely available to researchers in the United States." However, first cite the original source and create a parallel citation to its translation. For example:
Periodicals should be cited by combining rules on Foreign Materials (Rule 20) and Periodical Materials (Rule 16):
The Bluebook describes the components of citations, but sometimes it is more useful to see specific examples from the country in question. Please use Table T2, which includes examples from 44 different countries or states. If you still cannot find an example to meet your needs, try the following resources:
Don't hesitate to reach out to library staff with any remaining questions!