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Law Review Sources Guide: Services Providing Facsimiles Preserving Pagination

The Bluebook's rules about sources and the reality of available sources


HeinOnline is a legal research database composed (mostly) of scanned print material so law review editors can assemble authoritative sources, including (most importantly)

  • United States Reports: the only source for the official Supreme Court reporter
  • Thousands of law reviews, back to issue 1: many more than Lexis or Westlaw
  • The United States Code: the only source for the official version of US statutes
  • Historical statutory codes and session laws, but only older material
  • books, and lots of other stuff.

Click here to access HeinOnline. Please contact the library is you have questions:

Westlaw Reporter Images

Generally, the correct source for non-Supreme Court decisions is a reporter published by West - Federal Reporter and Federal Supplement for federal decisions and the West regional reporter (not the state's official reporter) for state cases. Westlaw provides a pdf facsimile of decisions as reported in West reporters. Open the pdf by clicking the "Original Image" link in the top left corner of the decision.

Watermarked GPO PDFs

The GPO produces PDFs with a digital watermark identifying that they are authentic and protected against alteration. Such "authenticated" documents are acceptable sources under Rule 18.2.

PDFs of recent issues of the Federal Register are available from

PDFs of recent copies of the Code of Federal Regulations are available from

Older scans of the CFR and the Federal Register are available from HeinOnline.